Dendrocalamus hamiltonii Nees & Arn.ex Munro

Sinocalamus hamiltonii (Nees & Arn.ex Munro) T.Q. Nguyen

Kokwa, Kako banh (Assam), Kako/Hate (Arunachal Pradesh), Aotsu (Nagaland), Unap (Manipur), Choya Bans/Ban Bans/Dhungray Bans (Sikkim), Phulrua (Mizoram), Pecha (Tripura)

Habit

Culms : Caespitose, clumping

Height : 12-20m

Diameter : 10-18.5cm

Culm Color : Dull green

Internode Length : 30 - 50cm

Culm Sheath Color : long and stiff, variable in size, those of the lower part of large culms 35-45 cmlong and ca. 20 cm broad, glabrous, shining within, rough and glabrous or with scanty patches of stiff brown hairs onouter side, truncate at the tip; imperfect blade about three-fourths the length of the sheath, often 30 cm long, ovatelanceolate,sides incurved, glabrous on outer surface closely covered with black hairs at the base of the inner surface;ligule smooth, entire. Leaves variable, small on side branches, but on new shoots reaching 37.5 cm long and 3.75 cmbroad, rounded at the base into a short thick petiole, broadly lanceolate, ending in an acuminate scabrous twisted point,smooth above, rough beneath, finely serrate on the margins; leaf-sheaths covered with white appressed stiff hairs onouter surface, glabrous inside, shining on the callus, somewhat keeled; ligule long, oblique, truncate.

Length of Leaf : 37.5cm

Breadth of Leaf : 3.75cm

Shape of Leaf : Broadly lanceolate

Altitude : 870-1800m

Soil : Heavy textured soils

Habitat, Distribution,Uses

Habitat : Semi-evergreen forests

Introduced to : North - West Himalaya, Assam, Manipur, Sikkim, Mizoram, Meghalaya Tripura, Nagaland

Description of Inflorescence and Flower : much branched large panicle with many whorls of branches, bearing half-verticillate semi-globular heads of purple flowers supported by round scarious bracts; rachis joints 2.5 cm long or less, thick, fistular, scabrous and white pruinose;heads variable, 1.7-3.2 cm diameter. Spikelets purple, ovoid, depressed, ca. 10 mm long, glabrous; empty glumes usuallytwo, short, rounded, nerved; lemmas broad, orbicular, somewhat recurved, ciliate on the edges; paleas of lower flowers2-keeled, ciliate on the keels and bifid at the acute apex, many-nerved. Stamens exserted, pendulous; anthers purple,connective produced into a long black hairy twisted point. Ovary sub-orbicular, hairy; style long, hairy; stigmas 3,plumose.

Flowering Cycle : 45- 55 years

Flowering Reported : Assam(1981-82), Punjab(1992)

Propagation : Seeds, culm cuttings

Uses: Construction, baskets, mats, edible shoot, vessels, rafts, chairs

References: Seethalakshmi K. K ,1998, Rao A.N,1999; Manual for establishment and management of bamboo plantations, march 2005

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